40 Subordinating Conjunctions List: Illustrated Examples

Subordinating conjunctions are important words that help join an independent clause (a complete sentence) with a dependent clause (an incomplete sentence that cannot stand alone) to form complex sentences. These conjunctions play a key role in establishing relationships between various parts of speech while conveying precise meanings or conditions.

In this article, we’ve compiled a list of subordinating conjunctions along with explanations and examples. This subordinating conjunctions list with explanations and examples will show you how they work, making it easier for you to use them correctly.

Subordinating Conjunctions List

Here’s a list of subordinating conjunctions in English…

Subordinating Conjunctions List
AfterEven ifOnceWhen
AlthoughEven thoughProvided thatWhenever
AsIfSinceWhere
As ifIn order thatSo thatWhereas
As long asIn caseSo long asWhile
As soon asInsofar asSupposingWhichever
As much asNow thatThanWho
BecauseBeforeThatWhoever
ThoughTillThoughWhose
UntilUnlessTillWhomever
WhyUntilUnlessWhether

Subordinating Conjunctions List: Explained with Examples

Here are explanations and example sentences for each subordinating conjunction:

  1. After: Describes an action that occurs later than another action or event.
    Example: After I finish my homework, I will watch TV.
    Usage: Use “after” to show that one action happens subsequently to another.
  2. Although: Indicates a contrast or unexpected situation.
    Example: Although it’s raining, we will go for a walk.
    Usage: Use “although” to present a contradiction or a surprising fact compared to what’s expected.
  3. As: Indicates a reason or a simultaneous action.
    Example: She sang as she walked home.
    Usage: Use “as” to show the reason behind an action or to describe two actions happening together.
  4. As if: Describes something that appears true but might not be.
    Example: She looked as if she had seen a ghost.
    Usage: Use “as if” to describe an appearance or behavior that suggests a certain situation, even if it might not be true.
  5. As long as: Specifies a condition that must be fulfilled.
    Example: You can go out as long as you finish your chores.
    Usage: Use “as long as” to set a condition that needs to be met for something else to happen.
  1. As soon as: Describes something happening immediately after something else.
    Example: I’ll call you as soon as I arrive.
    Usage: Use “as soon as” to indicate that an action will happen immediately after another action is completed.
  2. As much as: Indicates the degree of likeness or comparison.
    Example: I like you as much as I like her.
    Usage: Use “as much as” to compare things and show an equal degree of preference, likeness, or quantity.
  3. Because: Gives a reason or an explanation for something.
    Example: I am happy because I passed my test.
    Usage: Use “because” to introduce the cause or reason behind an action or a feeling.
  4. Before: Describes an action happening earlier than another event.
    Example: I will eat breakfast before I leave for work.
    Usage: Use “before” to indicate that one action occurs prior to another action or event.
  5. Even if: Indicates a hypothetical situation or a possibility.
    Example: Even if it rains, we will have a picnic.
    Usage: Use “even if” to express that something will happen or be true despite other circumstances.
  1. Even though: Indicates a contrast or opposition to what might be expected.
    Example: Even though it’s cold, I’ll go outside.
    Usage: Use “even though” to introduce a statement that goes against what might be expected in a situation.
  2. If: Describes a condition that must be met for something else to happen.
    Example: If it’s sunny, we’ll go to the beach.
    Usage: Use “if” to present a condition that needs to be fulfilled for an action to take place.
  3. In order that: Expresses purpose or intention.
    Example: She studied hard in order that she could pass the exam.
    Usage: Use “in order that” to explain the purpose or intention behind an action.
  4. In case: Describes something done as a precaution.
    Example: Take an umbrella in case it rains.
    Usage: Use “in case” to prepare for a possible situation or eventuality.
  5. Insofar as: Indicates the extent to which something is true.
    Example: I’ll help insofar as I can.
    Usage: Use “insofar as” to express the limit or extent to which something is applicable or true.
  1. Now that: Indicates something happening because of a present situation.
    Example: Now that she’s here, we can start.
    Usage: Use “now that” to show that one action or situation causes another to occur.
  2. Once: Describes an action happening after a particular time or event.
    Example: Once you finish your work, you can go play.
    Usage: Use “once” to indicate that an action will happen after a specific event or time.
  3. Provided that: Specifies a condition that must be met for something else to happen.
    Example: You can go, provided that you finish your homework.
    Usage: Use “provided that” to set a condition that needs to be fulfilled for another action to occur.
  4. Since: Indicates a reason or a specific point in time.
    Example: Since it’s late, we should go home.
    Usage: Use “since” to introduce the reason behind an action or to refer to a specific time in the past.
  5. So that: Expresses purpose or intention.
    Example: She studies hard so that she can get good grades.
    Usage: Use “so that” to explain the reason or purpose behind an action.
  1. So long as: Indicates a condition that must be met.
    Example: You can use my car so long as you bring it back by 5.
    Usage: Use “so long as” to specify a condition that needs to be fulfilled for something else to happen.
  2. Supposing: Indicates a hypothetical situation.
    Example: Supposing it snows, what will we do?
    Usage: Use “supposing” to introduce a hypothetical scenario or situation.
  3. Than: Indicates comparison between things or actions.
    Example: He is taller than his brother.
    Usage: Use “than” to compare and show a difference in degree between two things or actions.
  4. That: Often introduces clauses, connecting ideas or thoughts.
    Example: I know that she’s coming.
    Usage: Use “that” to introduce clauses or thoughts related to the main statement.
  5. Though: Indicates a contrast, similar to “although”.
    Example: Though it’s hot, she wears a sweater.
    Usage: Use “though” to introduce a contrasting idea or situation.
  6. Till: Describes something happening up to a specific time.
    Example: Wait here till I come back.
    Usage: Use “till” to indicate the duration of an action until a specific time or event occurs.
  7. Unless: Indicates a condition that, if not met, has consequences.
    Example: You can’t go unless you finish your homework.
    Usage: Use “unless” to express a condition that needs to be met; otherwise, there will be consequences.
  8. Until: Describes something happening up to a specific time.
    Example: I’ll wait here until you come.
    Usage: Use “until” to indicate the duration of an action until a specific time or event occurs.
  9. When: Describes a specific time or situation.
    Example: I will call you when I reach home.
    Usage: Use “when” to indicate a specific time or situation in which an action will happen.
  10. Whenever: Describes any time or situation.
    Example: Whenever he is sad, he listens to music.
    Usage: Use “whenever” to indicate any time or situation in which a particular action or event occurs.
  1. Where: Describes a place or situation.
    Example: This is where I used to live.
    Usage: Use “where” to refer to a specific place or situation in which something occurs or occurred.
  2. Whereas: Indicates a contrast between two things.
    Example: She likes tea, whereas he prefers coffee.
    Usage: Use “whereas” to show a contrast or difference between two things or ideas.
  3. While: Indicates a contrast or something happening at the same time.
    Example: She reads while he watches TV.
    Usage: Use “while” to show a contrast between two actions or to describe actions happening simultaneously.
  4. Whichever: Indicates a choice between alternatives.
    Example: Choose whichever dress you like.
    Usage: Use “whichever” to present a choice between two or more alternatives.
  5. Who: Refers to a person.
    Example: The person who called left a message.
    Usage: Use “who” to refer to a person or people in a sentence.
  6. Whoever: Refers to any person, no matter who.
    Example: Whoever wants to join can come along.
    Usage: Use “whoever” to refer to any person, without specifying a particular individual.
  7. Whose: Indicates possession by a person.
    Example: The girl whose bag was lost is upset.
    Usage: Use “whose” to show possession or ownership by a person.
  8. Whomever: Refers to any person, as an object.
    Example: Give the book to whomever you like.
    Usage: Use “whomever” when referring to any person as the object of an action.
  9. Why: Indicates a reason for something.
    Example: I don’t know why she’s upset.
    Usage: Use “why” to inquire about or explain the reason behind something.
  10. Whether: Indicates a choice between alternatives or if something is true.
    Example: I don’t know whether I should go or stay.
    Usage: Use “whether” to introduce a choice between options or to express doubt about two possibilities.

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